通識教育化學篇

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通識教育化學篇

  • 編/著/譯者 / 洪豐裕
  • 出版機關 / 國立中興大學
  • 出版日期 / 2019-11
  • 主題分類 / 科學技術
  • 施政分類 / 大學及研究所教育
  • ISBN / 9789869837873
  • GPN / 1010802183
  • 頁數/張數/片數 / 360
  • 裝訂 / 平裝
  • 定價 / NT$ 650
  • 9 折優惠價 / NT$ 585
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簡介

坊間中文的通識化學書通常都是翻譯自英文書籍而來,因為通識化學牽涉範圍很廣,作者需要有長年教學經驗才容易抓住重點和主題,國內很少學者在通識化學這方面耕耘,這就反映在這方面出版品的缺乏上面;本書針對中興大學通識課程的化學教學部分而編撰,可以當通識課程教科書或補充教材使用。


目次

第一章 緒論 .........................................................................................................13
1.1 科學的起源及發展 ................................................................................................13
1.2 文藝復興對西方科學發展的重要性 ....................................................................16
1.3 科學方法 ................................................................................................................22
1.4 科學與偽科學 ........................................................................................................23
1.5 科學哲學 ................................................................................................................27
1.6 科學與文明 ............................................................................................................28
1.7 科學的範疇及其限制 ............................................................................................29
1.8 科學與環保 ............................................................................................................31
1.9 科學與其他學問的關係 ........................................................................................33
1.10 科學有用嗎? ........................................................................................................35
1.11 現代公民的素養 ....................................................................................................36
《充電站》 .......................................................................................................................38
S1.1 常被人誤解的化學 ................................................................................................38
S1.2 分子設計師 ............................................................................................................39
S1.3 拉瓦錫戲劇性的一生 ............................................................................................41
S1.4 比利時原子堆積模型 ............................................................................................41
S1.5 都是鈕扣惹的禍? ................................................................................................42
S1.6 偽科學之一例:招搖撞騙的超能力—隔空抓藥 ................................................44
目 錄
S1.7 有關電腦:現在回想無法置信的舊時評論 ........................................................45
S1.8 常見科學方法詞彙 ..................................................................................................46
《練習題》 .......................................................................................................................47
第二章 物質的組成及變化 .........................................................................51
2.1 物質的組成 ............................................................................................................51
2.2 初期原子理論的出現 ............................................................................................53
2.3 原子模型的修正 ....................................................................................................53
2.4 元素週期表 ............................................................................................................57
2.5 定量概念的發展及設定 ........................................................................................59
2.6 世界觀的轉變 ........................................................................................................60
2.7 原子尺寸這麼小的東西,如何觀察? ................................................................66
2.8 原子核內部構造 ....................................................................................................66
2.9 化學鍵結的概念 ....................................................................................................67
2.10 酸鹼與氧化還原 ....................................................................................................72
2.11 催化反應概述 ........................................................................................................80
2.12 生活中的化學—聚合物 ........................................................................................91
《充電站》 .......................................................................................................................96
S2.1 門得列夫一二事 ....................................................................................................96
S2.2 密立根的油滴實驗造假? ....................................................................................97
S2.3 拉塞福α-粒子散射實驗和原子彈 .........................................................................98
S2.4 傳奇人物路易士 ....................................................................................................99
S2.5 化學家、戰爭與榮譽 ..........................................................................................101
S2.6 工廠排放汙染的問題 ..........................................................................................103
S2.7 化學的精神在合成 ..............................................................................................104
S2.8 第三者的功能─觸媒 ..........................................................................................104
S2.9 自然界的化學家─金龜蟲和牠的防禦系統 ......................................................105
S2.10 量子力學─最終理論? ......................................................................................106
S2.11 齊格勒和納塔與聚合反應 ..................................................................................108
S2.12 法拉第的啟示 ......................................................................................................109
S2.13 拉塞福的告誡 ......................................................................................................110
《練習題》 .....................................................................................................................111
第三章 重要化學分子 ..................................................................................115
3.1 小型分子大學問 ..................................................................................................115
3.2 中大型分子功能多樣化 ......................................................................................144
3.3 特大型分子的奇特功能 ......................................................................................157
3.4 構型特殊的分子 ..................................................................................................164
3.5 含過渡金屬化合物與顏色 ..................................................................................170
《充電站》 .....................................................................................................................171
S3.1 所羅門王的智慧和現代DNA鑑定 .....................................................................171
S3.2 浪子回頭—格里納的故事 ..................................................................................172
S3.3 增加造林減少二氧化碳? ..................................................................................173
S3.4 八仙塵爆 ..............................................................................................................174
S3.5 炒菜時的考量 ......................................................................................................175
S3.6 救命藥物分子 ......................................................................................................175
S3.7 奇特的元素—硼 ..................................................................................................176
S3.8 雷分索悖論 ..........................................................................................................179
S3.9 從水分子的形成來看化學鍵結與機率 ..............................................................180
S3.10 冷媒氟利昂與臭氧 ..............................................................................................181
S3.11 諾貝爾獎的遺珠 ..................................................................................................183
《練習題》 .....................................................................................................................185
第四章 物質與能量 .......................................................................................189
4.1 物質形態的變化 ..................................................................................................189
4.2 能量的形態及轉換 ..............................................................................................200
4.3 位能和動能 ..........................................................................................................210
4.4 質能守恆定律 ......................................................................................................211
4.5 能量與亂度 ..........................................................................................................212
4.6 燃煤與能源危機 ..................................................................................................214
《充電站》 .....................................................................................................................217
S4.1 原子彈的發展 ......................................................................................................217
S4.2 鐵弗龍與原子彈 ..................................................................................................218
S4.3 冷核融合的糗事 ..................................................................................................219
S4.4 為什麼福島核電廠是氫爆不是核爆? ..............................................................220
S4.5 硼化學與美蘇太空競賽 ......................................................................................221
S4.6 硼化學大師—布朗 ..............................................................................................222
S4.7 硼中子捕捉治療法 ..............................................................................................223
S4.8 省油車—生質柴油車 ..........................................................................................224
《練習題》 .....................................................................................................................225
第五章 化學與生活 .......................................................................................227
5.1 食衣住行育樂 ......................................................................................................227
5.2 水源污染 ..............................................................................................................244
5.3 毒性分子 ..............................................................................................................245
5.4 傳染病 ..................................................................................................................251
5.5 抗癌藥品順鉑 ......................................................................................................253
5.6 酸鹼的化學 ..........................................................................................................254
5.7 醋的化學 ..............................................................................................................255
5.8 鹽的化學 ..............................................................................................................255
5.9 油和脂 ..................................................................................................................257
5.10 糖的化學 ..............................................................................................................257
5.11 清潔劑的化學 ......................................................................................................258
5.12 農藥與水 ..............................................................................................................260
5.13 香水的化學 ..........................................................................................................260
5.14 瓦斯中毒 ..............................................................................................................261
5.15 電池的化學 ..........................................................................................................262
5.16 滅火器的化學 ......................................................................................................262
5.17 照明的化學 ..........................................................................................................263
5.18 洗碗精的化學 ......................................................................................................264
5.19 甲醛的問題 ..........................................................................................................264
5.20 樟腦丸 ..................................................................................................................265
5.21 鉛中毒 ..................................................................................................................266
5.22 水銀(汞)中毒 ..................................................................................................267
《充電站》 .....................................................................................................................269
S5.1 臺灣食品安全問題 ..............................................................................................269
S5.2 臺灣水資源問題 ..................................................................................................269
S5.3 鹽和薪水 ..............................................................................................................270
S5.4 水變成血的化學 ..................................................................................................270
S5.5 氫氧自由基與健康 ..............................................................................................272
S5.6 基因改植作物安全嗎? ......................................................................................272
S5.7 天然尚好? ..........................................................................................................273
S5.8 塑膠與紙製品 ......................................................................................................274
S5.9 塑膠材質回收辨識碼 ..........................................................................................274
S5.10 素樸世界─美國中西部的亞美許社群 ..............................................................276
S5.11 苦民所苦? ..........................................................................................................276
S5.12 弗萊明與邱吉爾─編出來的勵志故事? ..........................................................277
《練習題》 .....................................................................................................................278
第六章 化學與材料 .......................................................................................283
6.1 早期人類常使用的材質 ......................................................................................284
6.2 聚合物 ..................................................................................................................289
6.3 人定勝天或以自然為師 ......................................................................................292
6.4 奈米材料 ..............................................................................................................293
6.5 半導體材料 ..........................................................................................................299
6.6 超導材料 ..............................................................................................................302
6.7 液晶顯示器 ..........................................................................................................303
6.8 發光二極體 ..........................................................................................................304
6.9 生物大分子與太陽能發電 ..................................................................................305
《充電站》 .....................................................................................................................307
S6.1 一位科學家與聚合物 ..........................................................................................307
S6.2 鐵氟龍不沾鍋有毒? ..........................................................................................308
S6.3 生物可分解材料真的比較好? ..........................................................................308
S6.4 奈米材料的安全性 ..............................................................................................309
S 6.5 陶瓷及複合材料 ..................................................................................................309
《練習題》 .....................................................................................................................313
第七章 儀器的發明及使用 .......................................................................315
7.1 化學合成方法 ......................................................................................................315
7.2 儀器的重要性 ......................................................................................................319
7.3 儀器的使用及限制 ..............................................................................................320
7.4 儀器方法在考古學的應用 ..................................................................................336
《充電站》 .....................................................................................................................340
S7.1 情治化學—質譜儀的應用 ..................................................................................340
S7.2 誰殺了拿破崙? ..................................................................................................341
S7.3 核磁共振攝影 ......................................................................................................342
S7.4 微波爐使用的安全性 ..........................................................................................343
S7.5 DNA的雙螺旋幾何圖像和富蘭克林 .................................................................344
S7.6 化學技術在鑑定古物上的應用 ..........................................................................345
S7.7 簡單裝置大功用 ..................................................................................................346
《練習題》 .....................................................................................................................349
第八章 總結 .......................................................................................................351
8.1 由學習帶來的喜樂 ..............................................................................................351
8.2 謙卑 ......................................................................................................................352
8.3 反省 ......................................................................................................................353
8.4 關懷 ......................................................................................................................354
8.5 懂點化學很有用 ..................................................................................................355
《練習題》 .....................................................................................................................356


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